Kelowna Manual Therapy Centre Blog

ACUTE INJURIES

Acute injuries are initially treated with the PRICEM principles.  The sooner the PRICEM principles are initiated the better.  Remember that swelling may increase over the first 48 hours.

P - protect the injured area from further injury such as the use of crutches, limited weight bearing, etc
R - rest the injured area</li>
I - ice the injured area 10-15 minutes at a time up to every hour
C - compression to limit swelling through use of a tensor bandage, etc
E - elevation of the injured area
M - medication/modalities such as anti-inflammatory medication, ultrasound, electrical stimulation, etc.

Injured tissue goes through three overlapping stages of healing

  1. Inflammatory - the body reacts to the injury by swelling and begin to lay down new collagen tissue.  The new collagen is weak therefore stress should be minimized.  This stage lasts 7-10 days.
  2. Fibroblastic - this stage lasts 4-6 weeks and is characterized by increased density of new collagen tissue.  Gradual stress through the injured area is critical to resume optimal function.
  3. Maturation - this stage can last up to one year and the collagen tissue remodels itself in reaction to the stress placed upon it.

The key to rehabilitation during the acute phase is to gradually increase the stress placed upon the tissue matching the stages of healing and the severity of the injury.

OVERUSE INJURIES

Overuse injuries take two forms, which often overlap.  The first is simple overuse where an athlete has increased their training or has a sudden change in training to a level that has over stressed the tissue.  Treatment is to identifying the stressful event(s); decrease the inflammation and providing rest to the injured area.

The more common overuse injury is where the painful injured tissue can no longer handle the demands placed upon it.  This requires a more in depth assessment to determine what is the cause of the injury.  Quite commonly the injured area is the ‘victim’ of stiffness / lack of mobility and or control elsewhere in the body termed the ‘culprit’.  For example if a runner is complaining of lower back pain ‘the victim’, while ‘the culprit’ might be a lack of hip mobility, putting extra stress on the lower back.  The assessment should include looking at the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of each individual.

Intrinsic Factors:

  • Biomechanical examination of joint mobility and stability
  • Bony structure: Spine and limbs
  • Ligament stability
  • Muscles Activation /Strength
  • Body Awareness / Balance
  • Posture

Extrinsic Factors:

  • Training Methods
  • Shoes, bike, other equipment
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Injuries are common in recreational and elite athletes training for endurance events.

Injuries can be roughly classified as acute, such as rolling the ankle while trail running or overuse.  Overuse injuries can be caused by a sudden increase in training or the injured tissue can no longer cope with the demands placed upon it.

PREVENTION

Active Recovery
An active recovery of cool down is very important after hard workouts to help flush out lactic acid; it should consist of 15-20 minutes of gentle movement.

Differentiate Muscles soreness from Injury soreness
Delayed onset muscle soreness is common a day or two after a strenuous session, other than putting up with the soreness there is no harm done in continuing to exercise.  Joint soreness is an indication that the joint itself has been stressed and requires more rest.  Signs would include swelling or a ‘puffy’ joint and tenderness.  If other areas continue to ache or are painful, longer than 1-2 weeks should be assessed.

Correct Training
A gradual increase in training in necessary, a 10% increase seems to be a good rule of thumb.  Remember that while it is important to gradually increase training volume and intensity, adequate recovery allows the body to build up stronger.  High intensity training requires around 36-48 hours of recovery before another high intensity session should be undertaken.  A good rule of thumb is the higher intensity the session the longer that recovery.  Knowing your body is key for any athlete, knowing when to push and when to rest.

Cadence
Stride rate 180-200 strides per minute for runners, 90-100 RPM for cyclists

Technique
Runners should consider softer landing (midfoot/forefoot), slight lean forwards at the ankle, tall chest.  A proper bike fit is important for cyclists and triathletes.  A coach should be employed for swim technique analysis.

Strong Core
A strong stable core provided a good base to propel and transfer energy.  This allows an athlete to maintain good form and technique even when fatigued.

Adequate Flexibility
Adequate flexibility for the demands place on the individual ie. Hip mobility for runners, hamstring flexibility for cyclists, shoulder and thoracic mobility for swimmers.  This is probably more important as we age.  Static stretching should not be performed prior to a work out, dynamic stretching and a good warm up is better.   Static stretching prior to a work out has been shown to be detrimental to performance.  Static stretching (20-30 second hold) should be performed after a workout.

Old Injuries
Deal with those old injuries in the off-season that linger after your competitive season.  With an increased training load they will most likely reappear.

Adequate Sleep
There is some research that ongoing sleep deprivation, longer than 1-2 nights, interferes with our hormonal balance that regulates recovery.

Nutrition Replacement
A great resource is the coach.ca website, that has a sport nutrition section found at http://www.coach.ca/sport-nutrition-tips-p138189. Eating properly is important on a routine basis but a post workout combination of carbohydrates and protein is critical for recovery.  Good information can be found at http://www.coach.ca/recharge-and-replenish-recovery-nutrition-p144453.

Compression
Compression socks have become quite popular, with some claims of improved athletic performance.  Best scientific evidence is that they assist with lactate acid clearance post exercise and decrease swelling.

Cold Baths
Cold baths have become popular and are theorized to reduce the inflammation that has occurred with a strenuous workout. Cold water may help recovery, and can be used for around 10 minutes. It is not necessary to have an ice bath; cold water of 24 Celsius is okay.  Standing in our lake after a workout is also recommended.  Contrast baths of cold and warm water may also be beneficial though not very practical 1 minute cold 10-15 Celcius then 1 minute warm  (37-40 Celcius) for 7 cycles was advocated.

Footwear
Consider changing running shoes every 1000 km or so.  It is also wise to have two different pairs of shoes that you can rotate.  Make sure you have your footwear checked by a store with knowledgeable staff that can help you pick the right shoe.

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Most people have heard about it, but many are confused as to what this acronym stands for and how important it is to kick start the healing process.

The “R.I.C.E.” principle in its expanded form stands for REST, ICE, COMPRESSION, and ELEVATION. After injury, following the R.I.C.E. principle can limit swelling, protect the injured area, and relieve pain if used immediately.

In order to effectively put the “R.I.C.E.” principal to work for your injury, follow these steps:

  1. REST - this is important following injury in order to protect the injured area from further damage. Resting allows the body to use its energy effectively to heal the injured area. For instance, if you sprain your ankle, walking on the injured ankle can disrupt the healing process and prolong recovery.
  2. ICE - Applying ice to the injured area reduces blood flow and therefore reduces swelling. By reducing the swelling you are there by reducing the pain. There are many ways to apply ice, such as using crushed ice or a bag of peas, however it is good practice to place a moist thin towel between the ice and your skin. Apply ice for 15 to 20 minutes only. Leaving ice on for more than 20 minutes may cause unwanted damage to the skin and tissues. Leave ice off the area for at least 20 minutes before icing again. This process can be repeated many times throughout the day.
  3. COMPRESSION - Compression is another way to control swelling. Some people get temporary pain relief from compression. Use a tensor bandage to wrap the injured area If the injured area throbs or the bandage feels too tight, remove the bandage and wrap it more loosely. Compression is also a good way to protect the injured area from further damage.
  4. ELEVATION - Elevation is yet another way to reduce swelling and speed up the healing process. It involves raising the injured area above the level of the heart. For example, if you sprain your ankle, lie down on a bed or couch with your foot propped up on two or three pillows. Ideally, you can ice your ankle in this position, also.

If you are unsure as to the severity of the injury or you are unsure how to treat the injury, this is where an assessment by a physiotherapist can help guide your speedy recovery. Physiotherapy modalities such as electro physical agents, acupuncture and simple safe exercises can also assist in the healing process.

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Many chronic shoulder injuries that people have suffered through for months and sometimes up to years can have other areas in the body that may be influencing these injured areas.

The shoulder in its own right is a very complex joint.

When simplified the shoulder is a ball and socket joint of which also consists of muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones. Most shoulder pain originates from injury to the soft tissues of the shoulder, but in some cases, especially when you experience both neck and shoulder pain, cervical disk disease or a problem with the bones or nerves in your neck may be the source of your problem. In other cases poor biomechanics involving the scapula (shoulder blade) can put undue strain on the rotator cuff muscles, tendons and ligaments. Furthermore, the thoracic spine (middle back) and chest muscles can influence how a shoulder moves and more so can interfere with the healing process.

Exercises that focus on strengthening the scapula to provide a stable attachment site for the rotator cuff muscles will help reduce pain felt in the shoulder joint. As well as mobilizations of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae will also influence how the nerves and muscles that control the shoulder blade will interact with each other.

Many acute and chronic shoulder injuries would benefit from a thorough physiotherapy assessment of the shoulder but also the other joints that influence the shoulder.

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Great experiences can be had up on the ski hill. Yet, for too many people, the thrills end in spills and the dream day on the slopes is marred by a knee injury.

Knee injuries are common in skiers and snowboarders because the knee is highly vulnerable due to the very nature of how our legs are attached to the skis or boards. The foot and ankle is locked in the ski/board. So if there is a fall and the ski bindings do not release, as they should, it is the knee joint that suffers as a result. Likewise on a snowboard, the bindings do not release and therefore as you tumble down a slope your body is at the mercy to how you and your board fall as a unit.

A vast majority of injuries on the slopes involve knee injuries.

Most injuries will heal with the help of knee support/braces and physiotherapy treatment. The very worst scenario is a injury that will require surgery. The three most common ski/boarding injuries are meniscus tears, tears to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), and tears to the medial collateral ligament (MCL). There are varying degrees of injury to these structures from sprains to complete tears. If this should happen, a knee brace can be of great benefit to help alleviate further sports injury. Custom braces can be used to support an already injured knee to allow you to continue your ski season, but they can also be used to prevent injury, much like a helmet can help prevent concussions.

A strong core along with strong quadriceps and hamstrings are also good ways to help protect your knees too. Prior to a full day of skiing or boarding it is important to get a good warm-up at the start of your day. This can be as easy as a green or blue run where you do a lot of turns to get the blood pumping in your legs. Also take the time to stretch the long muscles in your legs, hips as well as your back.

A very simple but effective common sense tip is to always avoid skiing or boarding when you are tired as evidence shows accidents are much more common at the end of the day. So wise up and keep your knees safe on the slopes this year!

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Frozen shoulder (FS) is a common condition treated by physiotherapy.  There are three classic stages to the FS: a freezing stage, a frozen stage and a thawing phase.

The freezing stage is characterized by a gradual stiffening with a increase in pain.

The pain usually starts locally around the shoulder and is progressive in nature. Early on pain tends to be felt mostly at night or when the shoulder is moved close to the end of its range of motion. Common painful movements include doing up a bra, reaching into the back pocket, shampooing hair and pulling on a shirt overhead. The pain usually progresses to a constant intense pain at rest, which is aggravated by any movement of the shoulder.

A stiff shoulder with less pain characterizes the frozen stage.

The thawing phase is characterized by a gradual return of mobility and a further decrease in pain.

In the thawing phase, forward motion of the shoulder typically returns first. The mobility of the arm out to the side and behind the back will return later. To raise the arm, an individual will hike their shoulder blade to compensate for the lack of mobility.

The FS can last from 1-2 years. Most people will regain full use of their arm, although some individuals continue to experience a lack of mobility.

FS affects women more than men and is more common in the non-dominant shoulder.

Common risk factors for FS include:

  • Trauma to the shoulder
  • Diabetes
  • Thyroid disease
  • Increased cholesterol

Physiotherapy treatment should consist of manual physical therapy, exercises for mobility and modalities to decrease pain. The manual physical therapy is directed at the neck, upper back, shoulder blade and shoulder. The manual therapy can consist of joint manipulation, joint mobilization and soft tissue techniques. Exercises for range of motion help to improve mobility and are critical to maintain progress between visits.

It is worthwhile to try a course of physiotherapy to see if therapy can help speed up the recovery process. It is important that the therapy not increase the pain. It is okay to experience a temporary increase in pain during therapy but this should decrease to its usual level within 40 minutes.  Improvements in mobility should start to be experienced in 3-4 visits, though more physiotherapy will probably be required. If no gains in mobility are noticed in the initial visits, physiotherapy may not be help, but a home exercise program should be continued. If the pain persists or if the therapy exacerbates the pain a cortisone injection may be a good choice.

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Physiotherapists have long advocated that patients should try to improve their strength and mobility prior to undertaking any orthopedic surgery.

A previous blog showed the evidence for manual therapy and exercise in treating osteoarthritis of the hip and knee.  If the physiotherapy is not effective or if the pain continues to increase then a total joint replacement may be necessary. A recent study published in the journal of strength and conditioning showed that individuals who undertook a ‘prehabilitation’ program prior to undergoing a total knee replacement demonstrated improved strength and function i.e. walking and stair climbing.

It is very common due to the pain and swelling that the leg muscles become weak. The good news is that no matter how bad the pain is an exercise program can be prescribed to improve strength and mobility.

The exercise program consisted of walking, as well as strengthening and range of motion exercises for the hip and knee muscles. So if you do have to undergo a total knee replacement you should consider seeing a physiotherapist to learn an appropriate ‘prehabilitation program’.

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It is reported that 90% of shoulder dislocations are in an anterior (forward) direction. The other 10% are posterior (backward) dislocations. An anterior shoulder dislocation is one of the most common traumatic sports injuries and is caused by a force that pushes the ball forwards in the socket. The most common causes of dislocation is a fall onto the shoulder.

After a dislocation the sooner the shoulder is reduced or “put back in” the better.

Icing and rest are critical in the next 48 hours to minimize inflammation. Gradual mobilization and strengthening can be initiated once soreness allows.  If all goes well one can resume activity over the next 4-8 weeks. Some experts no longer advocate use of a sling although one can be used for short-term comfort. There is no reduced rate of dislocation with prolonged use of a sling and immobilization.

The bad news is that younger people who suffer a dislocation have a much higher rate of recurrence; some experts report an 80-90% rate of recurrence. Individuals aged 25 years and older will typically do well with a program of physiotherapy aimed at regaining proper shoulder mechanics and strength. Individuals aged 40 and older have a smaller dislocation rate of only 10-15% and should do also well with a physiotherapy program mentioned above. Unfortunately, older people who suffer a dislocation have a higher rate of concurrent rotator cuff tear.

A consequence of dislocation can be damage to the shoulders labrum. The labrum is like a rubber ‘O’ ring that works to deepen the socket. This type of labral tear is termed a Bankart lesion. Less common are bony fractures, ligament and muscles tears.

Symptoms of a Bankart Lesion can include:

  • A sense of instability i.e. “don’t trust the shoulder”
  • Further dislocations
  • Catching, locking, grinding, popping sensations
  • Aching of the shoulder especially at night
  • Loss of strength and mobility

These complaints are common to many other types of shoulder pain but if they occur post dislocation then they require further investigation by your physician.

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Low back pain is a very common occurrence and is said to affect 80% of people at some time in their life.  Common causes of acute low back pain are sudden unexpected movements i.e. bending: lifting while twisting, or trauma such as a fall or a motor vehicle accident.

Others can injure their lower back simply if bending to brush their teeth.  The low back pain can come on instantly, with acute muscle spasm or locking.  Sometimes it is impossible to move or to straighten to an upright position.  Other acute low back pain can come on more slowly; up to 2 days post injury, as swelling gradually accumulates.

What to do

  • Relax! No matter how bad the pain is it will get better.
  • If the pain is less than 48 hours use ice, use heat if the pain has been present for more than 48 hours. Heat can be in the form of hot showers, an electric heating pad, a microwaveable pad or hot water bottle.
  • Try to remain as active as the pain will allow. Some discomfort with moving around is normal. Research has proven that keeping active i.e. puttering around (stand a little, sit a little, walk a little) will allow you to get better quicker.
  • If you are unable to move or if movement greatly increases the spasm then you may require more rest. See the sleep position article for some advice on the best resting positions.
  • There is good evidence that Manual Therapy will get you better quicker. Research has proven that Manual Therapy performed in the first 16 days and when the pain is in the back and thigh is most effective.
  • Pain radiating down the leg will also improve with manual therapy but might also require specific exercises and/or positioning to relieve the pain. Traction can be of benefit especially when the leg pain is radiating below the knee.
  • Modalities such as electrical stimulation can be of benefit.
  • If the pain is constant you may benefit from anti-inflammatory medication, if the pain is keeping you from sleeping you might consider a muscle relaxant.  If the pain is unbearable then you might consider a pain reliever. It is best to discuss this with your physician or pharmacist.
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It is reported that one in six Canadians over the age of 15 is affected by arthritis. Osteoarthritis is one form of arthritis. This degenerative condition is characterized by wear and tear on the cartilage between joints.

Coinciding with the wear and tear is swelling and stiffness. The joints most commonly affected are the hip and the knee. Another common finding is the muscles and soft tissue around the affected joint will tighten and spasm.

Signs of hip osteoarthritis include hip pain (the pain can be deep inside the hip, on the outside of the thigh or in the groin and leg) a decrease in mobility (in rotation, moving the knee towards the chest and extending the hip), morning stiffness that lasts longer than 60 minutes and a limp.

arthritis-knee

Signs of knee osteoarthritis include knee pain, clicking or grinding with motion, more than 60 minutes of morning pain, joint swelling and bony enlargement around the knee. As well a limp develops while stairs, squatting and rising from chairs become increasingly difficult.

Physiotherapy will work best if the signs and symptoms of arthritis are recognized early and receive treatment in a timely fashion.

A recent study in Arthritis and Rheumatism showed a substantial improvement of symptoms in patients with hip osteoarthritis after 9 visits of manual physical therapy intervention. There was improvement of pain, stiffness, hip function and range of motion. Another recent study published in Physical Therapy demonstrated a decreased reliance on medications and improved function in patients who had knee OA after 8 treatment sessions of manual physical therapy combined with supervised exercise and a home exercise program.

arthritis-knee2Mulligan mobilization with movement (MWM) for hip stiffness

Manual Therapy is beneficial as it works to improve the mobility of sore and stiff joints as well as the tight muscles around the joint. The manual therapy can take the form of joint mobilization and manipulation, soft tissue work on the muscles and stretching.

Exercise is very beneficial in the treatment of arthritis and can be in the form of home exercise and/or aquatic exercise. In Kelowna there are a number of pool programs geared towards individuals with osteoarthritis. Typically exercise programs include both mobility and strengthening exercises.

The best current best research supports manual physical therapy combined with exercise for hip and knee arthritis.

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Physiotherapy Hours

Monday: 9:00 – 6:00
Tuesday: 8:00 – 5:00
Wednesday: 9:00 – 5:00
Thursday: 8:00 – 6:00
Friday: 8:00 – 5:00

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Monday: 9:00 – 5:00
Tuesday: 9:00 – 5:00
Wednesday: 9:00 – 5:00
Thursday: 9:00 – 5:00
Friday: 9:00 – 5:00

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Contact KMTC

1934 Ambrosi Road Kelowna, BC V1Y 4R9

250.860.5152
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